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Temperature is among the basic thermodynamic variables determining the state of the matter. It is measured with a thermometer. Temperature is a quantity directly proportional to the volume of a gas at constant pressure.
The most well-known units of measurement for temperature are Celsius (C), Fahrenheit (F) and Kelvin (K).
Celsius: for a long time, 0°C was defined as the freezing point of water, with 100°C defined as the boiling point, both measured at a pressure of one standard atmosphere. Today, this is defined even more precisely.
Kelvin: 0 K (-273,15°C) is also known as the absolute zero, which is the lowest possible temperature.
Fahrenheit: The Fahrenheit scale was proposed by the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit in 1724. For 0°F, he chose the lowest temperature he could reliably achieve by mixing salt and ice, while he defined 96°F as the human body temperature.